Issue 2004/3-4 (266-267) -

Jan Paweł II  3
Jan Paweł II  4
Grzegorz Pawłowski My Home, Jerusalem 5

Reminiscences from a voyage to the Eternal City of Jerusalem. The effect of awaiting successive images has assumed the shape of a series of photographs which document experiencing the fragmented shapes of history.  

Wojciech Brojer The Establishment of the House of God 11

 As long as they wandered, God accompanied them and preceded them in the Ark of the Covenant and below the Tabernacle. Once they settled down in the Promised Land, it became necessary to build Him a House. Who, and in what manner was to decide where in the homeland of the twelve generations of Israel should the Temple of Jehovah be erected? The answer to this question is to be found in the texts of the Jahvist (ninth century B. C.), cited in chapter 24 of 2 Samuel (2 Kings) and repeated (almost) faithfully seven hundred years later in the Chronicles (1 Chronic­le, 21). The account given by Samuel is immersed in the political reality of the emergent Kingdom of Israel and Juda, the organisational undertakings of King David, and the revolt against the new structures. The inspiration, however, came from God (the wrath of Jehovah) , and the foundation of the House of God was composed of hierophany together with its drastic consequences and the abrupt intrusion of divine energy into earthly reality; the Temple's construction site emerged in a dramatic dialogue between God and David. Heretofore destructive energy assumed the form of Jehovah's altar in Jerusalem and on Mt. Zion - land obtained from the King of the Jebusites.

Anthony Vidler The Architectural Uncanny. Essays in the Modem Unhomely 21

Unhomely Houses is the first chapter of Anthony Vidler's The Architectural Uncanny: Essays in the Modern Unhomely (MIT Press, 1992), in which the author traced the motif of haunted houses recurring in Romantic literature, i. a. in the stories of Edgar Allan Poe (The Fall of the House of Usher), Victor Hugo (Les Travailleurs de la mer), and E. T. A. Hoffmann (The Golden Flower Pot, Rath Krespel). By analysing literary images of unusual houses and, at the same time, referring to The “Uncanny”, the celebrated text by Sigismund Freud, Vidler attempted to define the element of the “uncanny” as a special experience in architecture. Assorted symptoms of spatial eeriness, e. g. the feeling of disorientation, instability, and claustrophobia experienced when faced with the abyss of an imaginary void, a labyrinth or a prison, are discovered also in literary descriptions by Thomas De Quincy (Confessions of an English Opium-eater) and Charles Nodier (Piranese, contes psychologiques), one of the many examples of the Romantic, sometimes mistaken interpretations of Giambattista Piranesi 's Carceri d'lnvenzione series.

Maria Rogińska The Road Home. Certain Aspects of the Model of the World in Russian Orthodox Narration from the End of the century 35

In the presented reflections on the organisation and conceptualisation of living space in post-Soviet Russia (1991-2004) the loss of the habits of sacralising space is confronted with a tangible longing for the Home, conceived as a sacral locum. The author at­tempted to examine, in the spirit of structuralism and phenomenology, the status of the home in models of the word contained implicitly (C. Lévi-Strauss) in Russian mythology. She sought an image of the home in contemporary Russian Orthodox narration (upon the basis of 900 documents of daily life) by resorting to a presumption of a profound analogy between the religious and secular order, disclosed by Russian history as a whole. In this perspective, the text delves into the theme of the home and the border, the home and prison, the home envisaged as a stop along the way, members of the household and newcomers, the home and fate, the home and the family, sight and sound in the space of the home, static and dynamic qualities, and time and eternity. The author analysed concepts of the small and large home (Fatherland, native land), which appear as elements of a wartime image of the world, typical for contemporary Russia.

Jan Gondowicz Collector of Fissures 45

A biogramme of Sigismund Dominikovich Krzhizhanovsky vel Zygmunt Krzyżanowski (1887-1950), whose voluminous prose and numerous essays were revealed in Russia some fifteen years ago. This sophi­sticated and concise author — a Pole writing in Russian — transformed philosophical and physical concepts into succinct and astonishing tales worthy of Calvin, Buzzatti, Landolfi, Rosendorfer or Borges, and maintained in their spirit.

Zygmunt Krzyżanowski Quadraturite 51

This novel (Kvadraturin, 1926) from the collection Chem lyudi miortvi, not published during Zygmunt Krzyżanowski's lifetime, starts in the manner of Bulhakov and ends in a truly Kafkaesque vein. A miraculous agent, obtained thanks to a pact with an unclean spirit and used to expand an insufferably cramped flat, leads to an explosion of the void: the flat becomes a breeding ground for an alternative, prison-like universe.

Tomasz Rodowicz Home, or Wandering in Time 55

An account of the first excursion made by the actors of the Gardzienice Theatre in September 1982 to northern Norway (Lapland) and the only nomadic tribe in Europe, the Sami. Its members have retained their distinctness, identity, occupation (reindeer breeding) and archaic songs known as JOJK. A moving description of the experience of seeking the reindeer, loneliness, and the feeling of being lost, together with an attempt at defining the true nature of the home.

Andrzej Coryell Drawing a Home 64

A reflection by an author of aphorisms and poetry, expressing the dream-like dimension of a home.

Jerzy S. Wasilewski On the Trail of an Imaginary Escape The Long March by Slavomir Rawicz 65

A description of an impressive escape to British India across Mongolia, Tibet and the Himalayas, accomplished by a Pole arrested by the Russians in 1939 and detained in a Siberian labour camp — has recently enjoyed a worldwide career, and is treated as a document. To an ethnographer familiar with the terrains in question it remains obvious fiction, brimming with naive images of the East and glaring errors in depictions of cultural reality. The plot is full of infantile inventions, and totally lacks details which simply had to be included if the described events really took place. A critical review of episodes, landscapes, and por­trayals of the natives proves that the book was written by someone who had never been there. The current popularity of the publication demonstrates the degree to which the boundary between the virtual and the real has become obliterated. The reader is increasingly less concerned with finding out whether something was an historical fact or fiction, vero or merely bene trovato.

Maciej Rożalski Candomble 77

Candomble is a general term pertaining to a group of religious cults in Brazil. There is no single, strict definition of the essence of this phenomenon, which cannot be even described as a cohesive religious formula, since Candomble is extremely differentiated and syncretic. Depending on the region in which it takes place the ritual is composed of various elements. Diverse impacts, partially of Catholicism and partly of local Indian culture, together with the religious beliefs brought over from Africa by black slaves, produced a unique mixture characteristic for the multi-cultural and ambiguous qualities of its form. As a rule, mention is made of a set of cults, thus avoiding eventual problems associated with definitions. There does exist, however, a certain joint feature typical for all of­fshoots of Candomble and worthy of special attention - so-called possession which, according to the adherents of the cult, is a manner in which the pantheon of the worshipped deities reveals itself. The gods descend into dancers selected for this purpose by assuming control over their bodies. The nature of this divine possession remains unexplained. On the other hand, it is known that it appears both in Brazil and in other cults of African origin in Cuba and Haiti, not to mention large parts of Africa, where it originated. It is even possible that this form of religious activity was present already in the rituals of ancient Greece. The author tells one of the stories about Candomble, the Brazilian cult of possession.

Jacek Olędzki Poetic Diaries. Peru, the Iconosphere of the Most Extraordinary Petroglyphs 85

In 2002 the author organised at Warsaw University a (“ceiling”) display of Peruvian petroglyphs. In this extremely personal sketch he describes his interest in the phenomenon, and takes the opportunity to present anthropological themes and publications which he regards as important.

Jacek Olędzki Quiet and Loud 100

A highly personal interpretation of Rondo de Gaulle'a (The de Gaulle Rondo), a book by Olga Stanisławska - a reporter's account of a trip to Africa.

Tomasz Szerszeń BRISÉES or Traces of Africa. On the African Journal of Michel Leiris 107

In Poland, Michel Leiris is associated predominantly with the surrealistic movement and placed within a constellation of such names as Georges Bataille or Antonin Artaud (the recently translated into Polish Mirroir de la tauromachie /Lustro tauromachii / stems from Bataillean inspiration which explains such an interpretation of Leiris' writing in Poland). Meanwhile, Leiris was also an ethnographer. Years later, interest in his works was disclosed by such influential anthropologists as James Clifford. The author of text presented in this issue concentrates his attention on L’Afrique fantôme (1934) - a journal written by Leiris during his ethnographic expedition across Africa. The journey came as a breakthrough for Michel Leiris:  all problems, topics, manners of writing characteristic for his later works originate in L’Afrique fantôme. This intriguing text evades all classifications: it combines the features of an intimate diary, an adventure story, an ethnographic treatise, and traveller's notes... The author stresses the connection between “ethnography”, “art” and “life” — Afrique fantôme is simultaneously “ethnography” and “autobiography”.

Julia Hartwig 114
Wojciech Z. Dąbrowski Verandah 115

Verandah is a description of the first four weeks of the author's stay in New Guinea and the historical event which took place at the time - a missionary expedition across the jungle to terrains which up to then have remained heathen. For two years the author conducted on-the-spot work in the Western Highlands of Papua-New Guinea. His research concerns changes of the consciousness among tribes of the Hagen culture, living in Jimi Valley, which in the second half of the twentieth century found themselves under the impact of a powerful gravitation of Western civilisation. In contrast to many other earlier colonised lands, Papua-New Guinea, which from the 1930s remained under Australian administration, did not experience a mass-scale influx of settlers and the resultant sudden attack launched against its tribal organisation.

Magdalena Prosińska Feeding a Dead 153

The reportage, written by an ethnographer working in Van Quan, North-eastern Vietnam, tells a story of her experience of meeting a lady-shaman called a then singer, who invites her to assist in a ritual called feeding of a dead person. The Tay shaman calls the soul of Mr. Tuan, who died one hundred days before and leads him through dangers of an Underground world. An army of the Then spirits helps the shaman and Mr. Tuan to reach the Land of Ancestors. The article describes preparations for the ritual and gives many details about the ceremony and people taking part in it.

Jadwiga Strzelecka 163
Jan Strzelecki 163
Jadwiga Strzelecka 172
Jan Strzelecki 174
Jan Strzelecki 177
Wiesław Szpilka On Sealskins 180

“Sealskining” is a special type of skiing which thanks to a suitable construction of the skis, the bindings, and the shoes, and by using two glued-on strips of fabric makes it possible to reach, and descend from, every arbitrarily chosen spot. Ski-touring and ski-Alpine mountaineering also describe the phenomenon in question, which offers a feeling of unrestrained liberty, but also the experiences of exertion, pain and hazard.

Julia Hartwig 182
Andrzej Pleńkos The San Michel Book and Home 185

From the time of eighteenth-century expeditions the island of Capri remained a popular destination of artists and researchers alike. In 1876 Axel Munthe, a young physician from Sweden, fell under the spell of the island's beauty and commenced building his dream residence, which he named Villa San Michel. In 1929 he published his life's work, an autobiographical novel entitled The Book from San Michel, a source of information about a profound fascination with classical culture, which gave rise to the construction of the author's highly individual home. The villa was not subjected to any architectural conceptions, nor did its owner employ a professional architect. The end result was the outcome of inspiration sought among the ruins of Capri and the labour of several local workers. A. Pieńkos analysed this interesting example of hazardous architectural eclecticism, and inquired into the essence of this phenomenon, the limits of aesthetic fascination, and the arbitrariness of an artistic collage.

Wespazjan Kochowski 190
Aleksandra Melbechowska-Luty Places, Traces, Sha­dows. On the Oeuvre of Daniel de Tramecourt 191

As an artist Daniel de Tramecourt is both an amateur and a professional. He had never graduated from an Academy of Fine Arts, and in 1964-1967 he attended a secondary arts school in Lublin, where he learned the basic workshop skills and embarked upon individual work. For long he has succumbed to vario­us fascinations, and is captivated by the art of Bosch, the Surrealists, Witold Wojtkiewicz, Jean Dubuffet, and Francis Bacon; in about 1995 he chose his master — the acclaimed painter Jacek Sienicki, in whose works he discovered a spiritual affiliation. De Tramecourt applied graphic techniques and drew and sculpted a lot, but painting remains the core of his oeuvre. He recreates the surrounding world: sites, landscapes, houses, interiors and objects, but also that which he sees with the “inner eye” and which had been ren­dered indelible in traditional memory - archetypical motifs taken from philosophy, literature, art, the Bible and mythology, and thus those realms which contain the ever-present idea of returnability, the “eternal return” to the sources. In this manner, his art not only mirrors substitutes of reality, but glows with the shadows of “primary things”. During the 1980s de Tramecourt painted quasi-ludic grotesques, intensively “coloured” genre scenes enacted in the market square of Kazimierz Dolny. Subsequently, he entered the domain of the human dwelling - up this very day de Tramecourt executes magnificent likenesses of the universal space of the home and metaphorical, usually deformed, portraits of men and women shouldering the heavy burden of existence, but also endowed with a secret spiritual life. De Tramecourt paints still life compositions and utensils: tables, chairs, fish, wine, fruit and flowers, which become iconic signs belonging to existence, albeit free from the common­place and banality; in this unique manner, he elevates and consecrates details of daily life, devising his own imaginarium of man's real and supra-sensual existence. De Tramecourt uses gouache, pastels and oil paint; he seeks special texture effects and strives to improve impasto and glaze. As a habitual participant in artistic life, he frequently showed his works in assorted Polish, German and French cities. The most relevant impulse in selecting the artist's path of life proved to be a deeply encoded determination and a conviction that he must devote himself to art, which has become the sole reason for his existence.

Lechosław Lameński To Conserve, to Restore, or Per­haps Simply to Tear It All Down? 203

A review of three books written upon the initiative of Jarosław Krawczyk, editor-in-chief of the monthly “Mówią Wieki”, concerning the history of the protection and conservation of monuments of architecture: Wokół Wawelu. Antologia tekstów z lat 1901-1909 (About Wawel. An Anthology of Texts from the Years 1901-1909, Warszawa-Kraków 2001), Alois Riegl, Georg Dehio i kult zabytków (Alois Riegl, Georg Dehio and the Cult of Historical Monuments, Warszawa 2002) and Zabytek i historia. Wokół problemów konserwacji i ochrony zabytków w XIX wieku. Antologia (The Historical Monument and History. On the Conservation and Protection of Historical Monuments During the Nineteenth Century. An Anthology, Warszawa 2002).

Ewa Klekot National Heritage Monuments and the Relation towards the Past 206

Ewa Klekot wrote about the modern and postmodern comprehension of the concepts of “history” and “heritage”, the rhetoric which emotionally appropriates (“colonises”) past experiences, precisely as an “heritage”, in order to legitimise the presence, and the role played within such rhetoric by the concept of “monuments of the past”. The article is an introduction to texts presenting the outcome of the research conducted by students of the Institute of Ethnology at Warsaw University among visitors touring the royal castles in Cracow and Warsaw.

Joanna Zalewska National Heritage Monuments - Who Do They Belong To? 209

National Heritage Monuments - Who Do They Belong To?  examined egalitarianism and elitism, as well as participation and exclusion in the attitudes of visitors touring the monuments.

Agnieszka Śmiertka Monuments and Guidebooks, or the Source of the Tourists Knowledge About What is Worth Seeing 210

Monuments and Guidebooks, or the Source of the Tourist's Knowledge About What is Worth Seeing studied the image of the two castles as seen by individual tourists using guidebooks.

Anna Kucio Knowledge About National Heritage Monuments Upon the Example of the Royal Castle in Warsaw and Wawel Castle 211

Knowledge About National Heritage Monuments Upon the Example of the Royal Castle in Warsaw and Wawel Castle demonstrated the fact that knowledge about national heritage monuments is not historical but haphazard lore about the past, whose part is composed of symbols and patriotic feelings.

Bartłomiej Kowal Between Tourism and Religion. Experiences of National Heritage upon the Example of the Royal Castle in Warsaw and Wawel Castle 212

Between Tourism and Religion. Experiences of National Heritage upon the Example of the Royal Castle in Warsaw and Wawel Castle - with a differentiation between the concepts of “emotional experiencing” and “experiencing as such” as his point of departure, the author showed how in the case of visitors at Wawel Castle and the Royal Castle in Warsaw tourist experiences change into experiencing the “national heritage”.

Agata Kapturkiewicz Must a National Heritage Monument be Authentical 214

Must a National Heritage Monument be Authentical described the ways in which a tourist understands authenticity, and the manner in which the latter influences the evaluation of a given site as a heritage monument.

Maja Stachowiak Power and Politics within the Context of National Heritage Monuments in the Opinion of the Visi­tors 215

Power and Politics within the Context of National Heritage Monuments in the Opinion of the Visi­tors attempted to reconstruct the common understanding of the concepts of “power” and “politics”, and wrote about the ways of situating them within the space of national heritage monuments: the inclusion of the former and the exclusion of the latter.

Wiesław Szpilka Wit 218

Personal notes made after reading Dariusz Czaja's Sygnatura i fragment. Narracje antropologiczne (Signature and Fragment. Anthropological Narrations), a book which demonstrates how assorted spaces of culture can become the domain of ethnographic analysis. A confrontation of various perceptions, forms of presence, and shapes of the same, performed in order to come closer to the ultimate sense.

Mateusz Braun A True Myth, or How Karol Wojtyła Became the Pope 221

The historical event of the election of Karol Wojtyła to the office of Pope, as perceived by the community of Gorlice, possesses the symptoms of a miracle and is located within mythical space. The story recounted by the author pertains to the oath sworn by the Pope's father during the battle of Gorlice, one of the bloodiest clashes during World War I. This tale has all the features necessary to create a myth about the miraculous intervention of Providence.

Seweryn Wlsłocki The Court Rules that Nikifor is Epifaniusz Drowniak 226

On 26 March 2003, after a seven-years long trial, the Regional Court in Muszyna proclaimed that the real name of the famous naive painter from Krynica, known as Nikifor, was Epifaniusz Drowniak. The trial was the outcome of years-long efforts on the part of the Łemko Union to recognise the artist's Łemko descent.

Jerzy S. Wasilewski 237
Magdalena Zowczak 239
Aleksander Jackowski 241
Ryszard Ciarka 242
Anna Eleonora Kubiak 244
Lech Mróz 245
Jacek Olędzki 249
*  252
*  255
Peter Martyn The former highway inn of Paweł Gut-Mostowski at Poronin: an historic monument of wooden architecture in dire peril 256

This open letter is intended to inform readers of the threat that an appallingly ill-conceived “road improvement” scheme poses not only to an outstanding example of vernacular wooden architecture but equally a place of exceptional natural beauty. The planning scheme, which forms part of the general transforming of the highway from Cracow to Zakopane into a dual carriageway, is intended to link this concrete and tarmacadammed “zakopianka” with the regional road that leads to Slovakia.

The apparent indifference shown by the local authorities of Poronin towards the former inn at the confluence of the Poroniec mountain stream and River Zakopianka may be explained partly by its over-exaggerated association with V.I. Lenin, but also by the likelihood that the “Tatras junction” is merely a sign of what is to come; namely, the entire area's redevelopment. The forces of change currently moving in on an enclave of uniqueness, where people achieved a remarkable degree of harmony with a beautiful but harsh natural environment, may be seen as part of an ongoing catastrophe. The entire region could only have been spared the worst excesses of modern 'civilisation' if the local highlanders themselves had demonstrated an intuitive foresight which, due to a paradoxical course in their more recent history, they seem to have all but completely forfeited. Having in large part introduced themselves to the American' way of life by escaping - much like the Irish - rural poverty and overcrowding, embracing with arms ever wider outstretched successive achievements of the industrial and techno-informational ages, the Highlanders currently find themselves between the devil of material well-being that has so long enticed them and the growing despair of witnessing their once safe, but now insecure, homeland being turned into a spiritual no less than an environmental wasteland.

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